İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city inTurkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. It is one of the most westernized cities in Turkey. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the delta of the Gediz River, to the east along an alluvial plain created by several small streams and to a slightly more rugged terrain in the south. The ancient city was known as Smyrna(Greek: Σμύρνη Smyrni [ˈzmirni]), and the city was generally referred to as Smyrna in English, until the Turkish adoption of theLatin alphabet in 1928 made "İzmir" the internationally recognized name.

The city of İzmir is composed of several metropolitan districts. Of these, Konak district corresponds to historical İzmir, this district's area having constituted the "İzmir Municipality" (Turkish: İzmir Belediyesi) area until 1984.[citation needed] With the constitution of the "Greater İzmir Metropolitan Municipality" (Turkish: İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi), the city of İzmir grouped together initially nine, and more recently eleven, metropolitan districts,


(Greek: Πέργαμος Aristoteles) Izmir due to a ilçedir.berg average, north of Izmir, is located in Bakırçay Basin. East quinine, Standing in the west, the south Aliaga, is surrounded by the northern province of Balikesir vemanis. It is 103 km away from the city center. Bergama economy is mainly based on agriculture. Efficient Bakırçay Plain tobacco, cotton, olives and grapes are grown. pine nuts with a high economic return on the Kozak Plateau is an important source of income. Today, especially beekeeping is becoming increasingly important in developing and livelihoods in mountain villages. agricultural industry are also in development in recent years. carpet and rug weaving is developed in the district.


Ayvalık (Turkish: [ˈajvaɫɯk]; Greek: Αϊβαλί, Κυδωνίες) is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey. It is a district of Balıkesir Province. The town center of Ayvalık is surrounded by the archipelago of Ayvalık Islands, which face the nearby Greekisland of Lesbos.

It was alternatively called Kydonies (Κυδωνίες) by the town's former Greek population; although the use of the name Ayvalık was widespread for centuries among both the Turks and the Greeks, pronounced as Ayvali (Αϊβαλί) by the latter.


The history of the city, which is the first settlement that can be known, and today's Wharf Area near the Lydian King Croesus' skin or ANAHAR established long before the start of a big city called Pidasus name.

B.C. In 1443, the city's first ever built by the people of Mysia, stuck depending on Adramytteion in ancient times and in Adramytteion throughout history (the Latin name ADRAMYTTİO) or have been mentioned with ADRAMYT have names. Lydian King Croesus Adramytteion name comes from adramys's brother.
ADRAMYS, it was rebuilt after being destroyed in the war and gave the city its name.

Edremit with the Roman Empire during the reign of the Roman city, which participated in the invasion of land, situated in a very important place in this period was culturally.

Later, the sovereignty of the Byzantine Empire gradually lost its importance during this period and entered the city today due to the war on this land has often experienced very few historical monuments.


Leukophrys ancient times, which is known as Bozcaada Tenedos in Greek mythology, suffered invasions many times through the ages because of its strategic position, and it changed hands. As it can be seen from the island in the island nekrapol excavations in the area BC It is based on the year 3000. The first inhabitants of the island known Pelasgians. Then, respectively, Phoenicians, Athenians, Greeks, Persians, Alexander the Great, Byzantine, Genoese, Venetians and Ottomans dominated the island.

After Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered Istanbul in Bozcaada, gained importance for Turkey and participated in 1455 in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottomans and Venetians, as of this date and the island of Bozcaada been fighting for domination of the past from time to time to the Venetians.

After a long period in the previous Ottoman rule, during the Balkan Wars in 1912, the island was occupied by Greece, connected to the 1923 Lausanne Treaty with the Republic of Turkey with Gökçeada.


Istanbul's Byzantine forces in 1453 with the conquest of the island of Gökçeada abandoned by the Ottoman Empire are left alone with their fate. Thereupon Gökçeadal delegates to Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmet going to meet with the island under Ottoman rule they provide the maintenance of the old order.

In 1455 he annexed the island is changing hands in the war between the Ottoman and Venetian periods. Suleiman the Magnificent island time is declared the foundation. Thus, assets protected and enhanced Gokceada, live in prosperity until the 20th century under Ottoman domination.
many Aegean islands in the early 1800s, despite the release of Greece Gökçeada staying in the Ottoman Empire.

1912 1 Gökçeaada entering the Balkans to Greece during the war. Gökçeada with the 1913 Treaty of Athens and the Aegean island of Bozcaada given outside Greece.
But in the meantime the First World War started because the Greeks remained on the island, Anzac, nominated by British and French forces as they make use of naval and air bases.

Gokceada, as a result of the Lausanne Peace Treaty of the Republic of Turkey on September 22, 1923, participating in the ground. Every year this date is celebrated as Independence Day in Gökçeada.

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Old Smyrna - Old İzmir

  Old Smyrna

At the dawn of İzmir's recorded history, Pausanias describes "evident tokens" such as "a port called after the name of Tantalus and a sepulchre of him by no means obscure", corresponding to the city's area and which have been tentatively located to date.[14] The term "Old Smyrna" is used to describe the Archaic Period city located at Tepekule, Bayraklı, to make a distinction with the city of Smyrna rebuilt later on the slopes of Mount Pagos(present-day Kadifekale). The Greek settlement in Old Smyrna is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC onwards. The most ancient ruins preserved to our times date back to 725–700 BC. According to Herodotus the city was founded by Aeolians and later seized byIonians.[15] The oldest house discovered in Bayraklı has been dated to 925 and 900 BC. The walls of this well-preserved house (2.45 by 4 metres or 8.0 by 13.1 feet), consisting of one small room typical of the Iron Age, were made of sun-dried bricks and the roof of the house was made ofreeds.The oldest model of a multiple-roomed house of this period was found in Old Smyrna. Known to be the oldest house having so many rooms under its roof, it was built in the second half of the 7th century BC. The house has two floors and five rooms with a courtyard. Around that time, people started to build thick, protective ramparts made of sun-dried bricks around the city. Smyrna was built on the Hippodamian system, in which streets run north-south and east-west and intersect at right angles, in a pattern familiar in the Near East but the earliest example in a western city. The houses all faced south. The most ancient paved streets in the Ionian civilization have also been discovered in ancient Smyrna.
Homer, referred to as Melesigenes meaning "Child of the Meles Brook", is said to have been born in Smyrna in the 7th or 8th century BC. Combined with written evidence, it is generally admitted that Smyrna and Chios put forth the strongest arguments in claiming Homer and the main belief is that he was born in Ionia. A River Meles, still bearing the same name, is located within the city limits, although associations with the Homeric river is subject to controversy.
From the 7th century onwards, Smyrna achieved the identity of an city-state. About a thousand people lived inside the city walls, with others living in nearby villages, where fields, olive trees, vineyards, and the workshops of potters and stonecutters were located. People generally made their living from agriculture and fishing. The most important sanctuary of Old Smyrna was the Temple of Athena, which dates back to 640–580 BC and is partially restored today. Smyrna, by this point, was no longer a small town, but an urban center taking part in theMediterranean trade. The city eventually became one of the twelve Ionian cities and was well on its way to becoming a foremost cultural and commercial center in the Mediterranean basin of that period, reaching its peak between 650–545 BC.[citation needed]

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