İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city inTurkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. It is one of the most westernized cities in Turkey. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the delta of the Gediz River, to the east along an alluvial plain created by several small streams and to a slightly more rugged terrain in the south. The ancient city was known as Smyrna(Greek: Σμύρνη Smyrni [ˈzmirni]), and the city was generally referred to as Smyrna in English, until the Turkish adoption of theLatin alphabet in 1928 made "İzmir" the internationally recognized name.

The city of İzmir is composed of several metropolitan districts. Of these, Konak district corresponds to historical İzmir, this district's area having constituted the "İzmir Municipality" (Turkish: İzmir Belediyesi) area until 1984.[citation needed] With the constitution of the "Greater İzmir Metropolitan Municipality" (Turkish: İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi), the city of İzmir grouped together initially nine, and more recently eleven, metropolitan districts,


(Greek: Πέργαμος Aristoteles) Izmir due to a ilçedir.berg average, north of Izmir, is located in Bakırçay Basin. East quinine, Standing in the west, the south Aliaga, is surrounded by the northern province of Balikesir vemanis. It is 103 km away from the city center. Bergama economy is mainly based on agriculture. Efficient Bakırçay Plain tobacco, cotton, olives and grapes are grown. pine nuts with a high economic return on the Kozak Plateau is an important source of income. Today, especially beekeeping is becoming increasingly important in developing and livelihoods in mountain villages. agricultural industry are also in development in recent years. carpet and rug weaving is developed in the district.


Ayvalık (Turkish: [ˈajvaɫɯk]; Greek: Αϊβαλί, Κυδωνίες) is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey. It is a district of Balıkesir Province. The town center of Ayvalık is surrounded by the archipelago of Ayvalık Islands, which face the nearby Greekisland of Lesbos.

It was alternatively called Kydonies (Κυδωνίες) by the town's former Greek population; although the use of the name Ayvalık was widespread for centuries among both the Turks and the Greeks, pronounced as Ayvali (Αϊβαλί) by the latter.


The history of the city, which is the first settlement that can be known, and today's Wharf Area near the Lydian King Croesus' skin or ANAHAR established long before the start of a big city called Pidasus name.

B.C. In 1443, the city's first ever built by the people of Mysia, stuck depending on Adramytteion in ancient times and in Adramytteion throughout history (the Latin name ADRAMYTTİO) or have been mentioned with ADRAMYT have names. Lydian King Croesus Adramytteion name comes from adramys's brother.
ADRAMYS, it was rebuilt after being destroyed in the war and gave the city its name.

Edremit with the Roman Empire during the reign of the Roman city, which participated in the invasion of land, situated in a very important place in this period was culturally.

Later, the sovereignty of the Byzantine Empire gradually lost its importance during this period and entered the city today due to the war on this land has often experienced very few historical monuments.


Leukophrys ancient times, which is known as Bozcaada Tenedos in Greek mythology, suffered invasions many times through the ages because of its strategic position, and it changed hands. As it can be seen from the island in the island nekrapol excavations in the area BC It is based on the year 3000. The first inhabitants of the island known Pelasgians. Then, respectively, Phoenicians, Athenians, Greeks, Persians, Alexander the Great, Byzantine, Genoese, Venetians and Ottomans dominated the island.

After Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered Istanbul in Bozcaada, gained importance for Turkey and participated in 1455 in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottomans and Venetians, as of this date and the island of Bozcaada been fighting for domination of the past from time to time to the Venetians.

After a long period in the previous Ottoman rule, during the Balkan Wars in 1912, the island was occupied by Greece, connected to the 1923 Lausanne Treaty with the Republic of Turkey with Gökçeada.


Istanbul's Byzantine forces in 1453 with the conquest of the island of Gökçeada abandoned by the Ottoman Empire are left alone with their fate. Thereupon Gökçeadal delegates to Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmet going to meet with the island under Ottoman rule they provide the maintenance of the old order.

In 1455 he annexed the island is changing hands in the war between the Ottoman and Venetian periods. Suleiman the Magnificent island time is declared the foundation. Thus, assets protected and enhanced Gokceada, live in prosperity until the 20th century under Ottoman domination.
many Aegean islands in the early 1800s, despite the release of Greece Gökçeada staying in the Ottoman Empire.

1912 1 Gökçeaada entering the Balkans to Greece during the war. Gökçeada with the 1913 Treaty of Athens and the Aegean island of Bozcaada given outside Greece.
But in the meantime the First World War started because the Greeks remained on the island, Anzac, nominated by British and French forces as they make use of naval and air bases.

Gokceada, as a result of the Lausanne Peace Treaty of the Republic of Turkey on September 22, 1923, participating in the ground. Every year this date is celebrated as Independence Day in Gökçeada.

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Assos (Behramkale)

Assos (Behramkale)

Assos was originally founded by Aeolian colonists from Lesbos in the 7th century B.C. In the 6th century B.C. it came under the rule of the Lydians and with their defeat at the hands of the Persians in 546 B.C., the city came under Persian rule. Ariobarzanes, the Persian governor who rebelled against King Artaxerxes was defeated at Assos in 365 B.C. and he was replaced by Euboulos, a prominent banker. He was succeeded by the eunuch Hermias, one of Plato's students and it was because of this association that Hermias's friend Aristotle stayed with him for three years at Assos (348-345 B.C.).

In 334 B.C. Assos was taken by Alexander, and the city was part of the Pergamon kingdom from 241 to 133 B.C. after which it came under Roman rule. Assos was ruled by Byzantium after 395 A.D. During this period it was known as Makhram. (It is believed that "Behramkale", the name of the village above Assos, is derived from this.) Assos became an Ottoman possession during the reign of Murad I (1359-1389). The acropolis was defended by a double wall. The inner walls appear to have been repaired in Medieval and Ottoman times and have been restored. Beside them is a mosque built during the reign of Murad I. The bridge below, which is no longer usable, was also built in the 14th century.

The Temple of Athena was built on a site with a magnificent view overlooking the sea at a height of 238 meters. At present only a few of the temple's columns are standing but restoration work is in progress. The temple was built some time around 530 B.C. It is constructed of andesite rather than marble and has 6 by 13 columns and measure 14 by 30 meters in size. The acropolis is surrounded by a wall three kilometers in length. These walls are skillfully constructed of stone and reach 20 meters in height in some places. There are two big gates, one on the west and another on the east, as well as seven smaller gates. The walls were reinforced with numerous towers and were built in 365 B.C. (The polygonal walls we see here and there predate the 4th century however.)

We shall begin our tour of the city proper by entering through the main gate on the west. Just outside the western gate is a necropolis containing tombs from Hellenistic and Roman times. The arched structure here is the monumental tomb of Publius Varius. Entering through the gate we see the defensive towers located on either side. On the left side after entering the gate is the Assos gymnasium. Measuring 32 by 40 meters, this gymnasium is the form of a courtyard surrounded on four sides by colonnades. On the northern side of the courtyard is a cistern.

The gymnasium is a work of the 2nd century B.C. A bit beyond this one comes to the Assos agora located on a terrace the foot of the acropolis. Its northern boundary is a double-story Doric-order stoa measuring 111.52 m long and 12.42 m wide. (The holes that one sees in the rear wall of the stoa are where the beams supporting the upper story were once set). The stoa on the southern side had three stories but owing to the slope of the terrain, the top floor was built on a level with the first floor of the northern stoa. The middle floor and basement opened only to the south while the top floor provided a view of both the agora and the sea. This was undoubtedly a favorite promenade place for the inhabitants. The middle story contained thirteen shops while in the basement there were two cisterns and thirteen bathrooms. Between the two stoas on the western side of the agora there were Hellenistic-period shops and next to them a temple built in the 2nd century B.C. Below the agora is the Assos theater. Originally built in 3rd century B.C., it was altered in Roman times and is now in ruins. 

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