İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city inTurkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. It is one of the most westernized cities in Turkey. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the delta of the Gediz River, to the east along an alluvial plain created by several small streams and to a slightly more rugged terrain in the south. The ancient city was known as Smyrna(Greek: Σμύρνη Smyrni [ˈzmirni]), and the city was generally referred to as Smyrna in English, until the Turkish adoption of theLatin alphabet in 1928 made "İzmir" the internationally recognized name.

The city of İzmir is composed of several metropolitan districts. Of these, Konak district corresponds to historical İzmir, this district's area having constituted the "İzmir Municipality" (Turkish: İzmir Belediyesi) area until 1984.[citation needed] With the constitution of the "Greater İzmir Metropolitan Municipality" (Turkish: İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi), the city of İzmir grouped together initially nine, and more recently eleven, metropolitan districts,


(Greek: Πέργαμος Aristoteles) Izmir due to a ilçedir.berg average, north of Izmir, is located in Bakırçay Basin. East quinine, Standing in the west, the south Aliaga, is surrounded by the northern province of Balikesir vemanis. It is 103 km away from the city center. Bergama economy is mainly based on agriculture. Efficient Bakırçay Plain tobacco, cotton, olives and grapes are grown. pine nuts with a high economic return on the Kozak Plateau is an important source of income. Today, especially beekeeping is becoming increasingly important in developing and livelihoods in mountain villages. agricultural industry are also in development in recent years. carpet and rug weaving is developed in the district.


Ayvalık (Turkish: [ˈajvaɫɯk]; Greek: Αϊβαλί, Κυδωνίες) is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey. It is a district of Balıkesir Province. The town center of Ayvalık is surrounded by the archipelago of Ayvalık Islands, which face the nearby Greekisland of Lesbos.

It was alternatively called Kydonies (Κυδωνίες) by the town's former Greek population; although the use of the name Ayvalık was widespread for centuries among both the Turks and the Greeks, pronounced as Ayvali (Αϊβαλί) by the latter.


The history of the city, which is the first settlement that can be known, and today's Wharf Area near the Lydian King Croesus' skin or ANAHAR established long before the start of a big city called Pidasus name.

B.C. In 1443, the city's first ever built by the people of Mysia, stuck depending on Adramytteion in ancient times and in Adramytteion throughout history (the Latin name ADRAMYTTİO) or have been mentioned with ADRAMYT have names. Lydian King Croesus Adramytteion name comes from adramys's brother.
ADRAMYS, it was rebuilt after being destroyed in the war and gave the city its name.

Edremit with the Roman Empire during the reign of the Roman city, which participated in the invasion of land, situated in a very important place in this period was culturally.

Later, the sovereignty of the Byzantine Empire gradually lost its importance during this period and entered the city today due to the war on this land has often experienced very few historical monuments.


Leukophrys ancient times, which is known as Bozcaada Tenedos in Greek mythology, suffered invasions many times through the ages because of its strategic position, and it changed hands. As it can be seen from the island in the island nekrapol excavations in the area BC It is based on the year 3000. The first inhabitants of the island known Pelasgians. Then, respectively, Phoenicians, Athenians, Greeks, Persians, Alexander the Great, Byzantine, Genoese, Venetians and Ottomans dominated the island.

After Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered Istanbul in Bozcaada, gained importance for Turkey and participated in 1455 in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottomans and Venetians, as of this date and the island of Bozcaada been fighting for domination of the past from time to time to the Venetians.

After a long period in the previous Ottoman rule, during the Balkan Wars in 1912, the island was occupied by Greece, connected to the 1923 Lausanne Treaty with the Republic of Turkey with Gökçeada.


Istanbul's Byzantine forces in 1453 with the conquest of the island of Gökçeada abandoned by the Ottoman Empire are left alone with their fate. Thereupon Gökçeadal delegates to Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmet going to meet with the island under Ottoman rule they provide the maintenance of the old order.

In 1455 he annexed the island is changing hands in the war between the Ottoman and Venetian periods. Suleiman the Magnificent island time is declared the foundation. Thus, assets protected and enhanced Gokceada, live in prosperity until the 20th century under Ottoman domination.
many Aegean islands in the early 1800s, despite the release of Greece Gökçeada staying in the Ottoman Empire.

1912 1 Gökçeaada entering the Balkans to Greece during the war. Gökçeada with the 1913 Treaty of Athens and the Aegean island of Bozcaada given outside Greece.
But in the meantime the First World War started because the Greeks remained on the island, Anzac, nominated by British and French forces as they make use of naval and air bases.

Gokceada, as a result of the Lausanne Peace Treaty of the Republic of Turkey on September 22, 1923, participating in the ground. Every year this date is celebrated as Independence Day in Gökçeada.

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İzmir Main features

  Main features

İzmir has almost 4,000 years of recorded urban history and possibly even longer as an advanced human settlement. Set in an advantageous location at the head of a gulf in a deep indentation midway along the western Anatolian coast, the city has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. Its port is Turkey's primary port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its free zone, a Turkish-U.S. joint-venture established in 1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey. The workforce, and particularly its rising class of young professionals, is concentrated either in the city or in its immediate vicinity (such as in Manisa and Turgutlu), and as either larger companies or SMEs, affirm their names with an increasingly wider global scale and intensity.[3] Politically, İzmir is considered a stronghold of the Republican People's Party.
İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and more recently the World University Games (Universiade) in 2005. A bid submitted to the BIE to host the Universal Expo 2015, in March 2008, lost to Milan. Modern İzmir also incorporates the nearby ancient cities of EphesusPergamonSardis and Klazomenai, and centers of international tourism such as KuşadasıÇeşmeMordoğan and Foça.
When the Ottomans took over İzmir in the 15th century, they did not inherit compelling historical memories, unlike the two other key points of the trade network, namely Istanbul and Aleppo. The emergence of İzmir as a major international port by the 17th century was largely a result of the attraction it exercised over foreigners, and the city's European orientation.[4] 
The modern name "İzmir" is the Turkish rendering of the original Greek name "Smyrna" (Σμύρνη). In medieval times, Westerners used forms like Smire, Zmirra, Esmira, Ismira, which was rendered as İzmir into Turkish, originally written as ايزمير with the Ottoman Turkish alphabet.[6]
In ancient Anatolia, the name of a locality called Ti-smurna is mentioned in some of the Level II tablets from the Assyrian colony inKültepe (first half of the 2nd millennium BC), with the prefix ti- identifying a proper name, although it is not established with certainty that this name refers to modern-day İzmir.
The region of İzmir was situated on the southern fringes of the Yortan culture in Anatolia's prehistory, knowledge of which is almost entirely drawn from its cemeteries, In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, it was in the western end of the extension of the still largely obscure Arzawa Kingdom, an offshoot and usually a dependency of the Hittites, who themselves spread their direct rule as far as the coast during their Great Kingdom. That the realm of the 13th century BC local Luwian ruler, who is depicted in the Kemalpaşa Karabel rock carving at a distance of only 50 km (31 mi) from İzmir was called the Kingdom of Myra may also leave grounds for association with the city's name.[9]
The latest known rendering in Greek of the city's name is the Aeolic Greek Μύρρα Mýrrha, corresponding to the later Ionian andAttic Σμύρνα (Smýrna) or Σμύρνη (Smýrnē), both presumably descendants of a Proto-Greek form *Smúrnā. Some would see in the city's name a reference to the name of an Amazon called Smyrna said to have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor.[10] Others link the name to the Myrrha commifera shrub, a plant producing the aromatic resin called myrrh that is indigenous to the Middle East and northeastern Africa, which was the city's chief export in antiquity.[11] The Romans took over this name as Smyrna, which is still the name used in English when referring to the city in pre-Turkish times. In Ottoman Turkish the town's name was ايزمير Izmīr.
In English, the city was called Smyrna into the 20th century. Izmir (sometimes İzmir) was adopted in English and most foreign languages after Turkey adapted the Latin alphabet in 1928 and urged other countries to use the city's Turkish name.[12]

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